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February
2021

Don’t Ditch the Laptop Just Yet: A Direct Replication of Mueller and Oppenheimer’s (2014) Study 1 Plus Mini Meta-Analyses Across Similar Studies

Heather L. Urry, Chelsea S. Crittle, Victoria A. Floerke, Michael Z. Leonard, Clinton S. Perry, Naz Akdilek, Erica R. Albert, Avram J. Block, Caroline Ackerley Bollinger, Emily M. Bowers, Renee S. Brody, Kelly C. Burk, Ally Burnstein, Allissa K. Chan, Petrina C. Chan, Lena J. Chang, Emily Chen, Chakrapand Paul Chiarawongse, Gregory Chin, Kathy Chin, Ben G. Cooper, Katherine Adele Corneilson, Amanda M. Danielson, Elizabeth S. Davis, Ycar Devis, Melissa Dong, Elizabeth K. Dossett, Nick Dulchin, Vincent N. Duong, Ben Ewing, Julia Mansfield Fuller, Thomas E. Gartman, Chad R. Goldberg, Jesse Greenfield, Selena Groh, Ross A. Hamilton, Will Hodge, Dylan Van Hong, Joshua E. Insler, Aava B. Jahan, Jessica Paola Jimbo, Emma M. Kahn, Daniel Knight, Grace E. Konstantin, Caitlin Kornick, Zachary J. Kramer, Meghan S. Lauzé, Misha S. Linnehan, Tommaso Lombardi, Hayley Long, Alec J. Lotstein, Myrna-Nahisha A. Lyncee, Monica Gabriella Lyons, Eli Maayan, Nicole Marie May, Elizabeth C. McCall, Rhea Ann Charlotte Montgomery-Walsh, Michael C. Morscher, Amelia D. Moser, Alexandra S. Mueller, Christin A. Mujica, Elim Na, Isabelle R. Newman, Meghan K. O’Brien, Katherine Alexandra Ochoa Castillo, Zaenab Ayotola Onipede, Danielle A. Pace, Jasper H. Park, Angeliki Perdikari, Catherine E. Perloff, Rachel C. Perry, Akash A. Pillai, Avni Rajpal, Emma Ranalli, Jillian E. Schreier, Justin R. Shangguan, Micaela Jen Silver, Avery Glennon Spratt, Rachel E. Stein, Grant J. Steinhauer, Devon K. Valera, Samantha M. Vervoordt, Lena Walton, Noah W. Weinflash, Karen Weinstock, Jiaqi Yuan, Dominique T. Zarrella, Jonah E. Zarrow
In this direct replication of Mueller and Oppenheimer's (2014) Study 1, participants watched a lecture while taking notes with a laptop (n = 74) or longhand (n = 68). After a brief distraction and without the opportunity to study, they took a quiz. As in the original study, laptop participants took notes containing more words spoken verbatim by the lecturer and more words overall than did longhand participants. However, laptop participants did not perform better than longhand participants on the quiz. Exploratory meta-analyses of eight similar studies echoed this pattern. In addition, in both the original study and our replication, higher word count was associated with better quiz performance, and higher verbatim overlap was associated with worse quiz performance, but the latter finding was not robust in our replication. Overall, results do not support the idea that longhand note taking improves immediate learning via better encoding of information.
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Don’t Ditch the Laptop Just Yet: A Direct Replication of Mueller and Oppenheimer’s (2014) Study 1 Plus Mini Meta-Analyses Across Similar Studies